Theoretical misconceptions and imaginary entities in astronomy, cosmology and physics[1]
Pavlo Danylchenko[2]
Research and Production Enterprise "GeoSystem" (Vinnytsia, Ukraine)
The majority of theoretical misconceptions and the most significant misunderstandings in modern astronomy, cosmology and physics are caused by a purely mathematical approach and ignoring philosophical comprehension of physical reality and, as a result, by not deep enough understanding of the essence of certain physical phenomena and objects. Foremost, it's all about phenomena and objects that are under consideration by Special and General Relativity. Author have analyzed historical roots of discussed here misconceptions and misunderstandings and have shown the possible ways to overcome them. Such constructive approach gives us the hope for getting rid of the majority of revealed here misconceptions and misunderstandings. Unfortunately, this is the problem of not only the astronomy and cosmology, but also of physics in general. Our perception and reflection of physical reality is still very primitive and, foremost, mainly mechanistic, macrocentric and anthropolimited. The unreality of black holes, Big Bang, nonbaryonic dark matter, dark energy, photons and neutrinos is justified in details. The current usage of exponential scale instead of metrically homogeneous scale of cosmological time in cosmology is shown. Therefore, the ignorance of the fact that only the infinitely far cosmological past on the event horizon and infinitely far cosmological future on Schwarzschild sphere are simultaneous with any event in people’s world is shown. The ignorance of the fact that this pseudohorizon covers the past of all infinite Universe is also shown. The possibility of existence of antimatter inside the neutron stars and quasars that have the hollow body topology and mirror symmetry of their intrinsic space is justified. The big redshift and long lasting high luminosity of quasars are explained. The spatiotemporal noninvariance of the gravitational constant and the fictiveness of Etherington's identity are proved. The absence of gravitational fields in the Universe up to the moment of discontinuity of its uniform gas continuum is shown. The origination of the gravity phenomenon is related to the formation of spatially inhomogeneous thermodynamic states by the matter and to the tendency of the whole gravithermodynamically bonded matter to reach the minimum of the integral values of its inert free energy and Gibbs free energy. The temporal invariance of not only all thermodynamic parameters and potentials of matter and its momentum but also of Lagrangian of ordinary internal energy and of equivalent to it gravitational mass of matter (to which the inertial mass is identical only in intrinsic time of this matter) is justified. The fact that spatial distribution of gravitational field strength, defined by logarithmic gravitational potential, perfectly corresponds to astronomical observations is shown. The fact that Hubble’s redshift is linearly dependent on comoving distance instead of luminosity distance is justified. It is shown that mentioned above fact corresponds to astronomical observations. It is concluded that such concepts as corpuscle and elementary particle are purely macroscopic. The inadmissibility of the presence of “thinginitself” in physics is shown. The possibility of spiralwave nature of the matter microobjects – the terminal local drains of turns of the spiral waves of high frequency spacetime modulations of the dielectric and magnetic permeabilities of the physical vacuum (singularities of the field according to Einstein hypothesis) – as a whole is shown.
Key words: black hole, quasar, Big Bang, nonbaryonic dark matter, dark energy, redshift, luminosity distance, gravitational potential, Etherington's identity, Hubble's law.
Einstein had believed that the particles were singularities of the field in space In quantum field theory we have learned in the meantime that the particles are singularities – namely poles – in momentum space, not in ordinary space. For Einstein the field was real; it was in fact the ultimate reality and determined both the geometry of the world and the structure of the material bodies. In quantum theory, the field distinguishes, as in classical physics, between something and nothing; but its essential function is to change the state of the world, which is characterized by a probability amplitude, by a statement concerning potentialities.
Werner Heisenberg (Single Field Theory)
Contents

p. 
Preamble (from the author) 
2 
Introduction 
7 
1. Imaginary Black Holes 
9 
2. Quasars 
11 
3. Imaginary Big Bang 
11 
4. On the inapplicability of GR for describing the evolution of matter and the Universe as a whole up to the moment of its gas continuum breaking 
15 
5. Spatiotemporal noninvariance of the gravitational constant 
16 
6. Nonidentity of inertial and gravitational masses 
18 
7. Logarithmic gravitational potential 
19 
8. Imaginary Etherington's Paradigm 
21 
9. Gravitytemporal invariance of really metrical values of mechanical and thermodynamic parameters of matter 
24 
10. The inconsistency of the motion of galaxies with Kepler's laws 
27 
11. Imaginary nonbaryonic dark matter 
38 
12. On the possible correlation between the imaginary relativistic and real gravitational time dilation on distant astronomical objects 
41 
13. Imaginary Dark energy 
42 
Conclusion 
46 
Reference 
48 
Preamble (from the author)
Recently besides the epochal misunderstandings such as “Big Bang” of the Universe and “black holes” the two more not less significant misunderstandings appeared: “nonbarionic dark matter” and “dark energy”. This clearly testifies the presence of protracted crisis in theoretical physics. It gradually becomes the simple handicraft industry instead of creative reflection of reality. The noncorrespondence to physical reality, delusions and gaps that were found in very harmonic constructs of special (SR) and general (GR) relativities are started to be hushed up by “Turanians”, who are dominant now in scientific circles, or become “patched” by them via the introduction of new material entities (Kantian “thingsinthemselves”) instead of reconsidering the physical entities of those theories themselves.
Exactly such primitive approach is characteristic for Turanian simplifiedperfunctory and purely holistic worldview and also for the inherited dogmaticparadigmatic and not very deep comprehension of physical reality:
«So, we will not be wrong if we say that in all spiritual (and scientific, – P.D.) creation (art) of Turkic people the one basic mental trait prevails: clear schematization of relatively poor and rudimental material. From here one may make a conclusion about the Turkic psychology itself. The typical Turkic person (and any other Turanian person, – P.D.) does not like to go into intricate details. He prefers to operate with the main clearly perceptible images and to group those images into clear and simple schemes (paradigms, – P.D.). However once should beware of possible incorrect interpretations of those statements. It would be a mistake to think that Turkic mind notably tends to schematic abstraction. The specific ethnographic data, from which we extracted the reference to Turkic psychological type, does not give us basis to make such conclusion. Those schemes (stagnant paradigms, – P.D.), on which the Turkic spiritual art is based as we have seen, are indeed not the product of philosophical abstraction and do not have the character of something deliberately considered. Quite the contrary, those schemes are subconscious and exist in the psychics as unconscious cause of that psychical inertia, due to which all elements of psychical material group by themselves in exactly this certain order (and not in some another order): this is possible due to the special elementary quality and simplicity of those schemes. On the other hand, it would be a mistake to think that narrowmindedness (metaphoricity, – P.D.) or sketchiness (paradigmality, – P.D.) of Turkic psychology hindered the wide scope and flight of fancy. The content of epic legends of Turkic people clearly contradicts to such ideas. Turkic fantasy is not poor and not timid, there is a brave swing in it but that swing is rudimentary: the force of imagination is directed not on the detailed workingout, not on the gathering of various details, but on the development in width and length; the picture drawn by this imagination is not replete with a variety of colors and transitional tones, but is drawn in basic tones, with wide, sometimes even colossally wide strokes. This tendency to development in width that is deeply characteristic to Turkic art is internally caused by the same basic traits of Turkic psychics… Described psychology of typical Turkic person determines also the lifestyle and worldview of the carrier of this psychology. Turkic person (as any other Turanian person, – P.D.) likes symmetry, clearness and stable equilibrium; but likes it to be given (in a form of purely mechanistic and other simple ordinary metaphors, – P.D.), and not determined, likes when it by inertia determines his thoughts, doings and lifestyle (and, therefore, does not go beyond the limits of generally accepted in his primitive society paradigms and traditions, – P.D.): to search for and to create those initial and basic schemes, on which the life and worldview should be based, is always painful for Turkic person since this search is always connected with the sharp feeling of lack of stability and lack of clearness. That is why Turkic people always took the readymade schemes of others, accepted foreign beliefs. But, of course, not every foreign worldview is acceptable for Turkic person. In this worldview there should obligatory be clearness, simplicity and most importantly this worldview should be a convenient scheme, in which everything can be included, all the world in all its concreteness. When Turkic person once started to believe in certain worldview and transformed it into subconscious law that determines his behavior, into universal scheme, and, thus, reached the condition of stable equilibrium on clear basis, he calms down and clings firmly to his beliefs (and scientific worldview, – P.D.). Looking at the worldview namely as at the unshakable basis of mental and everyday balance Turkic person shows the stiffness and stubborn conservatism in his worldview. Faith (and science, – P.D.), that came to Turkic environment inevitably freezes and crystallizes since there it is destined to play the role of an unshakable center of gravity – basic condition of stable equilibrium... And it is not a surprise that in his search for necessary basis for stable equilibrium Turkic person constantly choose the fruit of creativity of the Semitic spirit as the basis. However, wile appropriating this the fruit of creativity of the foreign spirit Turkic person simplifies it, perceives it statically in the readymade form and when he transforms it into the only unshakable basis of his mental and everyday life he mummifies it and does not take any part in its internal development. So, the Turkic people did not give Islam a single prominent theologian, lawyer or philosopher: they took Islam as some ready given thing… Muscovite Rus, despite the force and tension of religious burnup that determined not only its being but also its very occurrence, did not give a single prominent Orthodox theologian, in the same way as Turkic people did not give a single prominent Muslim theologian despite they always were more pious than Arabs. Here we see the influence of the common traits of religious (and scientific, – P.D.) psychology: in both cases the dogma of faith is considered as something given, as the main background of mental and everyday life and not as an subject of philosophical speculation; in both cases religious (and scientific, – P.D.) thinking is characterized by lack of flexibility, by disregard for abstractness and the desire for concretization, for the embodiment of religious experiences and (scientific, – P.D.) ideas in the forms of everyday life and culture… [Prince Nicholas Trubetskoy, 1925: 351].
This crisis started right after the discovery of possibility to construct the relativistic theory of thermodynamics alternative to the theory of PlanckHasenöhrl by Heinrich Ott [Ott, 1963: 70] and independently from him by Heinrich Arsels [Arzelies, 1966]. Due to heavy debates on this question H. Arsels told about the “modern crisis of thermodynamics” (and at all not the dogmatized itself SR). However the majority of physicists came to the conclusion about relativistic invariance of thermodynamics, but still do not understand the fact that it is possible only in case of absence of relativistic dilatation of the rate of intrinsic time of matter that moves in gravitational field only by inertia. Despite the principal possibility of gravityrelativistic dilatation of the intrinsic time of matter the matter that only inertially moves in the gravitational field is not affected in principle by this dilatation of intrinsic time [Danylchenko, 2022, 2024]. And it is guaranteed by more complex Lorentzconformal relativistic transformations of increments of spatial coordinates and time, which guarantee gravityrelativistic invariance and the conservation (during the process of inertial motion) of not only internal and total energy of matter, but also of all its other thermodynamic and gravithermodynamical potentials and parameters [Danylchenko, 2021: 37; 2022; 2022a: 101]. Exactly those Lorentzconformal relativistic transformations guarantee the absence of essential difference in the age of twins, and this makes the twins paradox (paralogism) a minor phenomenon. The primitive ordinary Lorentz relativistic transformations correspond not to inertial but to uniform (pseudoinertial) motion of matter. These are why the tensor of energymomentum being based on the thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter can be formed in general case only in frames of references of coordinates and time (FR) that is comoving only with continuous matter. And, therefore, for nonrigid (for example, naturally cooling down) matter he should be formed not in the metrical space, but in inseparable from matter itself its intrinsic physical space using nonmetrical coordinate grid. For the transition to metrical space, in which the single metrical length standard is used, using renormalization of spatial parameters it is necessary to know not only the radial distribution of the magnitude of molar volume of matter, but also the radial distribution of parameters of Lorentzconformal transformation. And this is, of course, not considered by anyone now. Unfortunately, the folk wisdom “the simplicity is worse than a theft” has been replaced in modern physics with the Turanian statement “everything genius can be only simple”.
As it will be shown in this article the fictive necessity of dark energy in the Universe is caused by the wrong usage of noncorrected photometric distance in Hubble relation, as well as by ignoring the absence of relativistic dilatation of proper time for far galaxies that only free (inertial) fall onto the event pseudohorizon. The identification of uniform (pseudoinertial) motion with inertial motion in SR also contributes to this.
Of course, in simplest cases, for example, in case of uniform (pseudoinertial) radial motion and, possibly, also in case of pseudoequallysloweddown (according to Möller) radial motion of naturally cooling down matter, the solutions of equations of gravitational field of GR can be obtained also in noncomoving with matter spaces and in particular in comoving FR in expanding Universe. And, at least, standard Lorentz transformations of increments of spatial coordinates and times are applicable for uniform (pseudoinertial) radial motion of objects of rigid body that is evolutionary selfcontracting in comoving FR in expanding Universe. However, these are only the peculiar simplest cases.
The legitimacy of usage in the tensor of energymomentum of continuous matter of extranuclear (thus thermodynamic) parameters and characteristics instead of intranuclear was substantiated by Richard Tolman [Tolman, 1969], who de facto proved the mutual consistency (correlation) of extranuclear and intranuclear parameters and characteristics of continuous matter. In the quasiequilibrium state of matter the product of absolute temperature, that characterizes the intensity of extranuclear thermodynamic processes, and coordinate velocity of light, that characterizes the intranuclear state of matter, is the spatially homogenous magnitude. However, such correlation is absent for the noncontinuous matter of the galaxies and that is why the tensor of energymomentum of noncontinuous matter of the galaxy should be formed only based on relativistically noninvariant intranuclear parameters and characteristics of matter. It was for a reason that Albert Einstein himself had doubts that universal structure of tensor of energymomentum is possible and compared it with the low quality timber in comparison to metrical tensor, which he compared with elegant marble.
All these misunderstandings are caused by a distorted physical interpretation of the theory of relativity itself and by the not deep enough understanding of physical essence of different forms of such main physical concepts as space and time and also by the not having knowledge about physical processes hidden behind the mathematical model of spacetime continuum (STC). Both the revealed by Henri Poincaré physical nature of the curvature of intrinsic space of matter and the revealed by Hermann Weyl possibility of nonobservable in principle in people’s world gauge deformation of matter on the level of its microobjects and, consequently, of corresponding to it STC are de facto ignored. Moreover, not all people understand the united nation of thermodynamic and gravitational properties of matter, according to which the equations of gravitational field of GR are the equations of spatially inhomogeneous gravithermodynamic state of gauge evolving matter. The neglecting of the principal unrealizability of singularities in GR (taking into account the correspondence of zero value of velocity of light only to infinitely large values of absolute temperature and pressure), as well as the neglecting of possibility of selforganization by matter and antimatter of mirror symmetric configuration of intrinsic space, are responsible not only for the replacement of ultra massive hollow neutron stars by “black holes”, but also for the nonunderstanding of the nature of ultra high luminosity of quasars and supernovas. Nonperception of the fact that the Universe cannot be homogeneous in principle in intrinsic STCs of astronomical objects and the false identity (paralogism) of Etherington (that is based on the imaginary dilatation of intrinsic time of inertially moving far galaxies) are responsible for the fictive necessity of phantom “dark energy” in the Universe. Nonunderstanding of the fact that tensor of energymomentum should be formed not being based on the external thermodynamic characteristics, but namely being based on the intranuclear gravithermodynamic characteristics of noncontinuous matter, is responsible for the fictive necessity of phantom “nonbaryonic dark matter” in the Universe.
The ignoring of spiralwave nature of matter [Danylchenko, 2014: 21] and the fact that Universe eternally existed [Danylchenko, 2009: 47], and not making the difference between infinite coordinatelike cosmological time and finite in the past pathlike cosmological time is the reason why scientific community accepted the naive theory of “Big Bang” of the Universe.
The scientific research made by author, results of which are described in the proposed for consideration work, is dedicated to the justification of everything mentioned above.
Introduction
Tensor equation of gravitational field of GR can be represented using either curvature of Riman’s spacetime continuum (STC) or metric inhomogeneity and metric instability of pseudoEuclidean space [Danylchenko, 2004a: 33; 2004a: 62; 2008: 45]. The solution of this equation in metrically homogeneous Riman’s STC corresponds to the solution in the background pseudoEuclidean space [Zeldovich & Grischuk, 1988]. This background Euclidean space is metrically inhomogeneous. Either metrically homogeneous time scales or exponential time scales can be used in such space [Danylchenko, 2004a: 33; 2004a: 62]. Such metrically inhomogeneous scales allow performing conformal transformations of time. Either infinitely far past or infinitely far future can become finite due to such time transformations.
General covariance of formulation of physical laws regarding the transformations of spatial coordinates and time in GR takes place during the transition from any stable and metrically homogeneous frame of reference of spatial coordinates and time (FR) to another stable and metrically homogeneous FR. In metrically instable and inhomogeneous spaces the dimensions of length standard are different at different moments of time in the same point and also at one moment of time in different points. Therefore, not only metrical and physical characteristics of distant in time or space objects and events, but also fundamental physical constants should be renormalized in FR of such spaces [Danylchenko, 2008a: 106]. Such renormalization should be done even when there was no transition to another point of observation in space.
The concept of Universe homogeneity may be applied only to comoving FR in the expanding Universe (CFREU). In CFREU (Weyl's FR) the radial distancing of galaxies from the observer is absent. Mutually proportional evolutional shrinkage of length standard and of all macro and micro objects of matter takes place in CFREU instead. All infinite fundamental space of CFREU is covered by the event horizon (pseudohorizon of the past) in the gravithermodynamic FR (GTFR) [Danylchenko, 2008a: 19; 2020: 5; 2024] of evolutionally selfcontracting matter. Relativistic failure to comply with simultaneity of simultaneous in CFREU events takes place in GTFR. As a result, only infinitely far cosmological past is simultaneous with any event in people’s world (in GTFR) on this pseudohorizon [Danylchenko, 2004a: 33; 2004a: 62]. Metrical distance to the event horizon, thereby, tends to infinity while approaching event horizon. Thus, concentration of astronomical objects in GTFR inevitably increases while approaching this pseudohorizon of the past and, consequently, while deepening into cosmological past. Therefore, the Universe can not be homogeneous in GTFR’s intrinsic space in principle.
Thermodynamical interpretation of General Relativity [Danylchenko, 2020: 5; 2022], consideration of the Universe as a single spiralwave formation [Danylchenko, 2014: 21], and consideration of the socalled elementary particles and quarks as finite local flows of these spiral waves [Danylchenko, 2004b: 44; 2008: 45] actually allowed the creation of a "theory of everything" [Pultarova, 2022], which would explain, in fact, everything in the world within the framework of a single model.
In an extremely rarefied substance, one microobject may correspond to a very large volume of outer space, filled with a very large number of pairs of terminal local sinks and sources of turns of spiral waves (that are now conditionally considered respectively as virtual “particles” and virtual “antiparticles”). Nearby virtual “antiparticles” can annihilate the particles of this microobject with the de Broglie frequency, and instead of it, a new microobject similar to it can be actualized at a large distance with a probability that is less, the greater its distance from the original annihilated microobject is. And this agrees well with quantum mechanics, which states that a microobject can be detected with a certain probability at any point in space. And besides, this does not at all contradict either classical physics, SR and GR, or the relativistic gravithermodynamics (RGTD) [Danylchenko, 2020: 5; 2022], since such a seemingly instantaneous transposition of a microobject is not associated with the transfer of energy faster than the speed of light. It is simply replaced by a new microobject in a new location. Although at any moment in time a new microobject can theoretically take, with a certain probability, any of a large number of microstates, this does not mean that it is simultaneously in several microstates. There is simply a change (with the de Broglie frequency) of microstates of microobjects (which are similar to and replace the annihilated microobject), depending on many random factors. All this indicates the advisability of considering not the individual behavior of any object, but the changes (with de Broglie frequencies) in the collective spatiotemporal microstates of all gravitermodynamically interconnected microobjects of both the object under study and the measuring instruments used in the research process. The change of these microstates is carried out by the influx of the next turn of spiral waves of spacetime modulation of the dielectric and magnetic permeability of the physical vacuum onto all microobjects.
Although the simultaneous spontaneous inversion of wave fronts of all microobjects of matter (and thus mutual transformation of matter into antimatter and of antimatter into matter when the Universe expansion in FR of people’s world is changed to Universe selfcontraction) is as it were fundamentally possible, the Universe selfcontraction itself in FR of people’s world is impossible. After all, this could have led to replacing evolution with degradation of all macroobjects of the Universe and and eventually to the predominance of antihydrogen in it.
Relativistic invariance of thermodynamics [Danylchenko, 2020: 5; 2022; 2021: 37] indicates the fundamental impossibility of slowing down of the rate of proper time of the matter that moves by inertia in surrounding gravitational field at any speed. So, the simple Lorentz transformations (and not the more general conformLorentz transformations) of the increments of spatial coordinates and time are not inherent in the motion of matter by inertia in the gravitational field. They are inherent only in the uniform motion of matter and, first of all, in the process of evolutionary selfcontraction of its microobjects in CFREU.
[1] 5th online edition, revised and enlarged (1st 2020, Foundations and consequences of Relativistic Gravithermodynamics, Vinnytsia: Nova knyga, p. 85128).
[2] © Danylchenko, Pavlo, 2024, pavlo@vingeo.com.
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